Many (core) Moore (Part III computing Epoch)

Back to the past – This is part III of four part story of the computing epochs as punctuated by Moore’s law in which Intel had its imprint for obvious reasons.

This is the 2003-2020 Era, in which multi-core, Open source, Virtualization, cloud infrastructure, social networks all blossomed…The onset of it was the end of MHz computing (Pentium IV) to multi-core and throughput computing.

It was also the beginning of my end in semiconductors for a brief period (20 years) until I decided its time to get back in the 2020s…That was punctuated by the first multi-core CPUs (mainstream) that Sun enabled – famously known as Niagara family and of-course the lesser know is UltraSPARC IIe which has an interesting contrast to Intel’s Banias (back to Pentium).

Some would call it Web2 era or Internet 2 era…The dot-com bubble which blew a number of companies in the prior era (OEM era), paved the way for new companies to emerge, thrive and establish the new stack. Notably at the infrastructure level, Moore was well ahead with first multi-core CPUs enabling virtualization and accelerated the decline of other processor companies (SPARC, MIPS), system OEMs as the market shifted from buying capital gear to cloud and opex.

Semiconductors investments started to go out of fashion as Intel dominated and other fabs (TI, National, Cypress, Philips, ST and many more withered) leaving Intel and TSMC with an also-ran Global foundries. In the same period, architectural consolidation around x86 happened along with Linux, ARM emerged as the alternative for. a new platform (mobile) via Apple. Looking back it was the value shifting from vertical integration (fab + processors) to SoC and thus IP (ARM) became dominant despite many attempts by processor companies to get into mobile.

Convergent to the emergence of iPhone/Apple/ARM, was AWS EC2 and S3 and thus the beginning of cloud with Opex as the new buying pattern instead of capex. This had significant implication as a decade later that very shift to commodity servers and opex comes full circle via Graviton and TPU with the cloud providers going vertical and investing in silicon. Intel’s lead on technology enabled x86 to dominate and when that lead in technology both slowed thanks to Moore’s law and TSMC, the shift towards vertical integration by the new system designers (Amazon, Google, Azure).

Simultaneously, emergence of ML as an emerging and significant workload that demanded new silicon types (GPU/TPU/MPU/DPU/xPU) and programming middleware (TensorFlow and PyTorch) broke the shackles from Unix/C/Linux to new frameworks and new hardware and software stack at the system level.

Nvidia happened to be at the right time at the right place (one can debate if GPU is the right architectural design), but certainly the new category or the tea leaves for the new system which is a CPU + xPU seeds were sown by mid 2010s….

All of the shift towards hyper scale distributed systems was fueled by Opensource. Some say that Amazon made all the money by reselling open source compute cycles. Quite true. Open source emerged and blossomed with the cloud and eventually the cloud would go vertical and raises the question – Is open source a viable investment strategy especially for infrastructure. The death of Sun microsystems was led by open source and. the purchase of RedHat by IBM formed the bookends of Open Source as the dominant investment thesis by the venture community. While open source is still viable and continues to thrive, it’s not front and center as a disruptor or primary investment thesis by end of this era as many more SaaS applications took the oxygen.

We started with 130nm 10 layers of metal with Intel taking the lead over TI and IBM and ended with 10nm from TSMC taking. the lead over Intel. How did that happen? Volumes have been written on Intel’s mis-steps, but clearly the investment into 3DXpoint and trying to innovate or bet with new materials and new devices to bridge the memory gap did not materialize and distracted. Good idea and important technology gap need, but picking the wrong material stack distracted.

The companies that emerged and changed the computing landscape were VMware, Open Source (many), Facebook, Apple (Mobile), China (as a geography ). The symbiotic relationship between VMware and Intel is best depicted in the chart below.

Single core to dual socket multi-core evolution…

On networking front The transition from 10Gbps to 100Gbps (10x) over the past decade is one of the biggest transformation of networking adoption of custom silicon design principles.

Above chart shows the flattening of the OEM business while the cloud made the pie larger. OEMs consolidated around big 6 (Dell, HPE, Cisco, Lenovo, NetApp, Arista) and rest withered.

GPU/xPU emerged as a category and along with resurgence in semiconductor investments (50+ startups with $2.5+B of venture dollars). Generalization of xPU with a dual heterogenous socket (CPU + xPU) is becoming the new building blocks for a system, thanks to CXL as well. The associated evolution and implications for the software layer was discussed here.

We conclude this era with the shift from 3-tier enterprise (‘modern mainframe’) stack that was serviced by OEMs to distrbuted systems as implemented by the cloud providers where use case (e-commerce, search, social) drove the system design whereas technology (Unix/C/RISC) drove the infrastructure design in the prior era (a note on that is coming…)

In summary – Moore’s law enabled multi-core, virtualization, distributed systems, but its slowdown of growth opened the gates for new systems innovation and thus new companies and new stack including significant headwinds for Intel.

Lets revisit some of the famous laws by famous people…

  1. Original Moore’s law – (cost, density)

Bill Joy’s change it to Performance Scaling. Certainly slowing down and shift in performance moved to throughput over latency. Needs update for ML/AI era, as it demands both latency and throughput.

2.Metcalfe’s Law – Still around. See the networking section.

3.Wrights Law (demand and volume) – – this predates moore’s law and now applies to many more domains – battery, biotech, solar etc…

4.Elon’s law – (A new one…) – Optimal alignment of atoms and how close to that is your error. We are approaching that.

5.Dennard Scaling – Power limits are being hit. Liquid cooling is coming down the cost curve rapidly.

SoC to SoP

A reflection of moore’s law, personal history and coming Tsunami of Systems

This blog was prompted by Pat Gelsinger in his recent keynote talking about Systems on Package (SOP). That brought memories of Systems on a Chip (SoC) – back to Circa 1991. While this term is common in the lingua franca of chip nerds these days, it was not the case back in 1991. Perhaps one of the first SoCs on the planet was one in which I was lucky to be involved with that also helped bootstrap my professional life in Silicon and Systems. It was Microsparc-I (aka Tsunami) while at Sun and that had a few firsts. All CMOS, first SoC and had a TAB package. All-in-one.

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MicroSPARC – 1 in a TAB package (Circa 1991)

This chip was in the system. Good to know its in the computer history museum archives.


The label Sun 386i was a joke. Used to have Sun 386i platform and the joke was, this was faster and cheaper than any PC then.

MicroSPARC-1 on the board

That was the beginning of my semiconductor run in my professional life. It started with an ECL machine for SPARC we did back in 1987-1990, which got shelved eventually as it was going to be hard to manufacture and sustain volume production. Some of us without a job, were asked to work on a ‘low cost’ SPARC and work with TI on their 0.8uM CMOS process. While the rage then was BiCMOS (SuperSPARC for Sun) and Intel Pentium. It showed Intel despite being a tech and manufacturing power house, has made mistakes in the past, not just recently…We will come to that

The First SoC (Microprocessor SoC) had many firsts back in 1991.

  1. It was all CMOS (when BiCMOS and ECL were still ruling the roost
  2. It was all integrated (Integer Unit, Floating Point Unit, Icache, Dcache, MMU/TLBs, DRAM controller (SDRAM) and Sbus Controller (Pre PCI).
  3. It was in 0.8 uM CMOS (TI) and in a TAB package (as seen above)
  4. It was entirely Software driven tool chain – the physical layout was done with Mentor GDT tools – programmatically assemble the entire chip form basic standard cells and GDT P&R tools, Synopsys synthesis, Verilog. All SW driven Silicon – A first. There is a reference to it here. This led to the entire EDA industry rallying around the way Sun designed microprocessors and a whole sleuth of companies formed around that (Synopsys, Ambit, Pearl, CCT->Cadence and many many more).
  5. It was the beginning of the low cost workstation (and server) – approach $1000 and ‘fastest’ from a clock rage (MHz – when that was the primary performance driver in the early years).
  6. From 1991 through 2003 by the time I left Sun, was involved in 8 different generations/versions of SPARC chips and looking back, the Sun platform/Canvas not only helped me be part of the team that changed the microprocessor landscape, we changed the EDA industry and by late 1990s brought ODM manufacturing to traditional vertically integrated companies to completely outsource systems manufacturing.

A visual of the height of Moore’s law growth and the success I rode with that Tsunami (Co-incidently the first chip for me was named Tsunami). From 0.8 uM 2LM CMOS to 0.65uM 10 LM CMOS. From 50 MHz to 2 GHz, 0.8M xtors to 500M xtors.

1991-1994 – Microsparc – The first CMOS SoC Microprocessor that extended Sun workstations and servers to the ‘low end’ and drove technology leadership with EDA companies named above in driving many ‘SW driven VLSI’. We built the chip with the following philosophy ‘construct by correction’ vs ‘correct by construction’ – which was the prevailing methodology. In modern parlance of Cloud – its DevOps vs ITops.

1995-1998 – UltraSPARC II and IIe – With the introduction of 64 bit computing, we continued to lead both on architectural performance (IPC), semiconductor technology (lead CMOS @ TI along with IBM until Intel took control of that by 1998), Clock Rate and many system level innovation (at Scale Symmetric Multi-processor, glue-less SMP at low cost, Media instructions). This was the Ultra family of compute infrastructure that was the backbone of the internet until the dot-com bust (2001-2003)!

1998-2001 – UltraSPARC I & E series: Created 2 product families and both drove new business ($1B+) for Sun. The Telco/Compact PCI business went form $0 to $1B in no time, the extension of workstations and servers to $1K and glue-less SMP (4-way) for <$20K, another industry first. The beginning of NUMA issues and pre-cursor to the dawn of the multi-core era. UltraSPARC IIi (codenamed Jalapeno) was the highest lifetime volume CPU for the entire lifetime of SPARC.

Clock Rate (SPARC vs x86)

While clock rate is not a good representation of actual device technology improvements, its the best first order relative metric I can share here given the dated history. Suffice it to say as you can see, until 1998 we had good technology (CMOS) FOM improvements per node until 0.18uM (Intel coppertone), when Intel decided to boost its performance by 60% when the industry average was 30%. That was the beginning of the end on two fronts – Sun + TI having enough capital and skills to keep up with the tech treadmill against Intel (althought we introduced copper for metal ahead of Intel) and the decision to start shifting architecture from pure IPC and clock to multi-core threading. Recognizing this, I started the multi-core effort around Circa 1998, but it took another 5 years to bear fruit. I digress.

As a side note: Look at Intel technology improvement performance lately. I would never have in my wildest imaginations thought this would happen.

2001-2003 – Dawn of Multi-core and threading: While the results of these happened in 2001-2003, the seeds of this were sown in both multi-core in the form of dual core UltraSPARC IIe and eventually Niagara (UltraSPARC T Series).

The next 10 Year years is going to be as dramatic as the 1990s for completely different reasons at the system level. While Moore’s law has slowed down, the SoP is an important and critical technology shift to enable one to keep up the effective Moore curve. With Moore you got performance, power and cost at the same time./ We won’t get all three, but we can strive 2 out of 3 – i.e. Performance at constant cost or power.

SoP (Systems on Package) is an important milestone and glad to see Intel leading that and so is AMD and rest – but this can be a compelling way to construct the new system. In the next blog we will explore why the next 10 years is going be disruptive at the system level, but SoP like SoC and CMOS+Moore law was the Tsunami wave that raised a lot of boats including my career, many companies success and changed the industry and computing stack in a fundamental way.

I expect many firsts or changes or disruptions from design methodology to now customization by customer of various heterogenous silicon components (CPU, IPU, FPGA, memory elements and a lot more). Associated with that will be tools to assemble this, but also tools to make these look like one monolithic’ fungible computing element to the end user.

Virtualization to-date has been dominated by leveraging multi-core and improving utilization by spawning of many VMs that subdivide the machine into smaller chunks. New software layers either above or below the standard frameworks like Lambda (Server-less), PyTorch/TF (ML/AI) or Crypto will drive new ways to effectively use the dramatic increase in total silicon real estate including tiering of memory, scheduling code chunks to accelerators in coherent space (via CXL), new intra-rack and intra-node connectivity models via CXL and many more to come. Strap in for that ride/discussion. HW is getting more disaggregated from aggregation that started back in 1991 via SoC to now with SoP , Software will have to do the ‘aggregation’.

As I signoff, will share some more images from the 25 year anniversary of SPARC is captured here in this montage below.

$TSLA – Marching towards $10T by 2030……

First Trillionaire and 10 Trillion dollar company.

This is my 4th post on the topic of $TSLA and never thought I would do one in 2021. My predictions was a valuation of $1T by 2030. That will come and pass rather soon.

My first post on $TSLA was back in June, 2017 where the core value long term I thought was Chemistry (Battery) and Intelligence (Full Self Driving/Autonomy). That continues to be the case with Elon’s battery day (Sep’20) & Tesla Autonomy day on April 2019.

So why $10T? That seems to be even more ridiculous than the $1T. Since Feb’20 to now it has gone by 4x and $600B market cap. While there are lots of bears, there are lots of bulls as well for the TSLA case.

Bull Case #1: The bull case is presented by Ark Invest (Source: Ark Invest). Having crossed 500K in 2020 and total of 1M+ with 2 additional factories (Austin and Berlin) yet to come online, getting to 1-2M by 2025 is highly likely and approaching 5M might be difficult, but then Elon has beaten the odds and the market is expecting him to with the demand.

2020Example Bear Case 2025
Cars Sold (millions)0.55Example Bull Case

Average Selling Price (ASP)$50,000$45,000$36,000
Electric Vehicle Revenue (billions)$26$234$367
Insurance Revenue (billions)Not Disclosed$23$6
Human-Driven Ride-Hail Revenue (net, billions)$0$42$0
Autonomous Ride-Hail Revenue (net, billions)$0$0$327
Electric Vehicle Gross Margin (ex-credits)21%40%25%
Total Gross Margin21%43%50%
Total EBITDA Margin*14%31%30%
Enterprise Value/EBITDA1621418
Market Cap (billions)673$1,500$4,000
Share Price**$700$1,500$4,000
Free Cash Flow Yield0.4%5%4.2%
Ark Invest Projections

What’s interesting is TSLA has single-handely taken out the $35K- $100K market which the Germans dominate and Toyota tried hard to penetrate with incremental engineering and marketing. TSLA changed the game and will perhaps go as low as $25K but not lower is my guess. TSLA will license IP (Chemistry and Intelligence) and let others make the cars. The entire $35K to $100K is now ‘owned’ by TSLA and its going to be harder for most makers other than the BMW or Mercedes and they will be supported by ardent fans latched onto the brands. 2018 data for segmentation of the various categories is shown here.



As you can see from above, 62.8% of the market will be covered by Tesla with Model 3, Model Y, Model S, Cybertruck and perhaps upcoming new China sourced $25K model. That includes the SUV, Midsize, MPV, Pickup, Executive, Sport and Luxury segments. The total market size is 54M cars and if Tesla can get 20% of that category – which actually is possible (we are in winner take all world these days with Amazon, Google, Apple where its tech driven) relative to conventional wisdom of highly fragmented and splintered market for automobiles.

Bull Case #2: Its what I mentioned in the last year. One has to look at TSLA as a business of businesses. Expect in the next 5 years, either take the Alphabet (GOOG) route or via other routes (Spin-offs, M&As, SPACs ….) derivative businesses will emerge and stand on their own. To re-cap

  1. A car company
  2. A Battery company at planet scale
  3. An AI/ML company (machine vision in particular)
  4. An electric storage company
  5. An Electric Utility company (low value but at scale gets interesting)
  6. An energy distribution company
  7. A potential Cloud or computer company (if a book store turns into cloud computing, an autonomous car can have the right assets for becoming a cloud company)
  8. A big data/mapping/navigation company
  9. A carless car company (i.e. Uber/Lyft killer robotaxi)
  10. A machine vision driven robotics company
  11. and more to come….(more than letters in the Alphabet)

Elon himself quoted a version of this back in Oct’2020

Bull Case #3: Chemistry and Intelligence. Every tech category goes through vertical integration and horizontal stratification. I speculate Elon will build down to a $25K car and below that, he will ‘license’ IP (Chemistry and Intelligence or battery tech and autonomy tech) to get worldwide reach. It would not make sense to have factories all over the world for all geos – but a strong IP revenue model ($1-$2K/car) could be had and also enable new players in countries to become car companies – i.e. more local manufacturing and distribution. And not just limited to cars, for all kinds of transportation and perhaps energy sectors. From the chart above the remaining 35% of the segments (Compact, Sub-Compact, City-car) would belong in this category. Of the 86M cars sold in 2018 (I suspect its less in 2021), 30M cars would be in this category. If 20% of the manufacturers pay TSLA $1K-$2K – lets assume $1K – that is $6B of pure profits which is subsidized by the higher end. The TSLA brand will be more valuable and trusted over VW, Mercedes, BMW, Toyota by 2025 that most people would buy a car ‘Tesla powered’. At this rate of battery cost decline (see blow), these manufacturers who cannot afford R&D or manufacturing at scale would do well to buy it off TSLA. This is akin to INTC holding onto x86 and not having an IP model which let ARM into its turf. Imagine if INTC had both a vertically integrated model of CPUs and a licensing model for some components – AAPL would be in Intel’s camp and so would the big three hyperscalers. Pat Gelsinger is trying to get Intel back into that game in 2021 (which we will address in a different blog post). But if TSLA were to choose both models, a vertically integrated model for some categories and an IP or sub-component sale to other categories, they can cover the entire spectrum and make the brand even more ubiquitous and higher moat.

TSLA is handicapped relative to VW and Toyota on manufacturing scale and distribution reach. The aggressive ramp of manufacturing of the car and IP model will broaden the reach and create other businesses (Robo Taxi, Energy Storage/distribution, Cloud computing for AI and many more to come).

Bill Gates famouly said ” We overestimate what we can do in 2 years and underestimate what humanity will achieve in 10″. One has to do a version for Elon. He over-promises what’s coming in 2-3 years, but delivers on a 10 year vision. If you look back what he has said in 2011/2012 – and see what has been accomplished – its not that far off.

We will revisit this blog in 2025 if we have crossed the Ark Invest marker and if TSLA is barrelling past $3-$4T and march towards the first $10T company on the planet (or maybe a collection of companies).

wrong tool

You are finite. Zathras is finite. This is wrong tool.

----- Thinking Path -------

"knowledge speaks but wisdom listens" Jimi Hendrix.

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